In the treatment of diabetes, various types of insulin are used. There are a large number of drugs that differ in their own characteristics of insulin, so these drugs are not always interchangeable.
Each type of insulin has its own action time and activity peaks. The doctor determines the preferred insulin and its types in each case, based on the severity of diabetes and related diseases.
Before an individual insulin injection regimen is developed, it is important to know what types of insulin are and what effect they have on the patient's body.
The pancreas secretes normally 35-50 units of insulin day and night, this is 0.6-1.2 units per kilogram of body weight. 1 unit of insulin equals 36 micrograms (mcg) or 0.036 mg.
Basal insulin secretion provides glycemia and metabolism between meals and during sleep. Up to 50% of the daily production of insulin is accounted for by basal insulin.
Food secretion of insulin is the rise in blood sugar after eating, which ensures the neutralization of hyperglycemia "after eating" and the absorption of carbohydrates. The amount of dietary insulin approximately corresponds to the amount of carbohydrates consumed.
The production of insulin varies depending on the time of day. The need for this hormone is higher in the morning, from about 4 o’clock in the morning, then it gradually decreases.
During breakfast, 1.5-2.5 units of insulin is produced for 10-12 g of carbohydrates.
1.0-1.2 and 1.1-1.3 units are secreted for a similar amount of carbohydrates day and evening.
Initially, insulin of animal origin was used. Over the years, scientists were able to obtain this hormone chemically with a high level of purification. In 1983, artificial insulin was widely used in medicine, and animal insulin was banned.
The principle of creating the tool is to place the gene materials in the cells of non-pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli or yeast. After such exposure, the bacteria themselves produce the hormone.
Modern insulins vary in terms of exposure and sequence of amino acids. According to the degree of purification, they are:
There are two types of food or short insulin:
- Short insulin: Biogulin R, Actrapid NM, Monodar, Humodar R, Actrapid MS, Monosuinsulin MK,
- Ultrashort insulin: Insulin Glulizin (Apidra), Insulin Lizpro (Humalog).
Long-acting drugs or basal drugs are long-acting and medium-duration insulins. Among the common ones:
- insulin isophane
- insulin zinc and others.
There are drugs that include fast insulins and long-acting drugs - mixed insulins. They are used for insulin therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Mixed insulins are also included in the treatment of traditional type 1 diabetes.
In some cases, ultrashort insulin is an engineering type that begins to act as soon as it is introduced into the human body, this is necessary for encephalopathy. The action increases, usually after an hour and a half and lasts up to four hours.
Ultrashort insulin is administered only after meals or before. This type includes:
- Insulin apidra,
- New Rapid
- Insulin Humalog.
The effects of this type of insulin are known to many diabetics. Side effects after administration may be manifested immediately or not appear at all. When they occur, it is important to immediately consult a doctor.
Which types of insulin from the available options are best used, the doctor decides in each case.
Their effect depends on the condition of the patient, the duration of use and the components present.
Short or simple insulin begins its action after 20-30 minutes. It grows for 2-3 hours after administration of the drug, and the total duration of action is 5-6 hours.
Short-acting insulin is administered before meals, you need to withstand pauses between injection and food intake in 10-15 minutes.
It is necessary that the time of eating coincides with the estimated peak time of the substance. Modified, genetically modified, short insulins with minor side effects are:
- Insulan Actrapid,
- Humulin Regular "and others.
When asked why one or another insulin is used, the attending physician must answer.
The dose of insulin is determined based on the individual characteristics of the diabetic.
When studying types of insulin, substances with an average duration of action should be indicated. These are insulins, the effect of which lasts 12-14 hours.
Medium insulin is needed no more than 1-2 injections per day. Most often, injections are done with an interval of 8-12 hours, they help after 2-3 hours. This effect of the drug is due to a larger effect on the human body. Medium insulin is not only an engineering type, but also genetically processed.
The maximum effect is felt after 6-8 hours. Medium-acting insulins include:
- Insulan Humulin NPH,
- Humodar br and others.
Which of them will work better and why, the doctor decides, depending on the medical history. Side effects are rare and after prolonged use.
About alternate division
Insulin can be characterized in terms of alternative division. This classification is carried out by the origin of the substance.
A substance called cattle is obtained from the pancreas of cattle. The substance is very different from the human analogue, allergic reactions often occur to it. These drugs include:
Often available in the form of insulin tablets.
The pig component may be a prolonged action. This kind of substance differs from human insulin in only one group of amino acids, which can also cause allergic reactions.
Another analogue of the substance is genetically and engineering. The components are extracted in the following ways:
- the human component is synthesized using Escherichia coli,
- conversion of pigs by amino acid substitution.
Why this or that option is better can be found out only after several procedures.
Substances that are similar to human insulin include:
The last group contains modern analogues of insulin, which include its engineering form, genetically derived and human component. Combined insulin is considered the most suitable for diabetes, since allergic manifestations and side effects are minimized. This is achieved because there is no protein.
This classification provides an opportunity to form an idea of which type of substance will be effective in each case.
Hormone antagonist insulin
Each antagonist of the insulin component provides increasing levels of blood sugar. They can be long-acting.
Anti-hormonal analogues of such a substance, for example, Sinamlbumin, have been created.
Glucagon needs to be recognized as an insulin antagonist. These include:
- sex hormones
- tizroedny hormones.
Immunoreactive insulin is in the group; it is the newest remedy for diabetes.
Of all the drugs available, you should choose those that cause a minimum of allergic reactions and side effects. Such funds are suitable for the maximum number of people with diabetes.
Animal insulins are not so preferred because they have a foreign protein. It is important to always carefully study the labels on the product labels. MS is a one-component, highly purified insulin. NM is an analogue of human insulin.
The numbers "100" or "50" indicate how many units of insulin are in 1 ml. If more than a hundred - this is high concentration penphilic insulin. To use it, you need a syringe pen with which insulin injections are performed.
The classical method of injecting insulin has various negative aspects, from the need to start insulin therapy, ending with the formation of a fear of injections. Scientists are constantly developing options with which you can inject simple or any other duration of action.
Oral insulin is a promising development, the price of which is quite high. The method is better in that there is no need to give injections once a day or more.
Oral insulin, which a person receives with food, triggers the process of sugar entering the bloodstream. When the sugar concentration increases, the pancreas begins to work and produce insulin. Together with digestion products, insulin reaches the liver. This organ acts as a regulator that distributes insulin in the right quantities for other organs.
Considering the types of insulin and their effects, we can mention food, in particular vegetables and fruits. The point is that these products in some way normalize the level of insulin in the human body.
Help lower sugar:
Insulin levels increase:
Expired insulin should never be used. Observe the storage rules of the drug. Overdue insulin may interfere with normal walking and will also cause:
Insulin should be stored at a temperature of 2-8 degrees in a dark place, but not in the cold. At this temperature, the substance retains its aseptic and biological characteristics.
High temperatures lower the bioactivity of the drug. When insulin is cloudy, then it should not be used. These phenomena, as a rule, are observed under the action of high temperatures along with shaking.
If the drug was frozen once, then it can no longer be used. Any lumps and sediments in suspensions indicate that it is undesirable to use them.
Regardless of whether the substance is in the group of simple or is it combined insulin, the drug must be stored for up to six weeks, until it is cloudy. Once this has happened, the substance is no longer usable.
Insulin is prescribed by a general practitioner or endocrinologist. If there is a disability, then there are certain benefits.
Information on the types of insulin can be found by watching the video in this article.
What is long acting insulin
For patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, long-acting insulin is a vital drug. And this statement is not unfounded. Cancellation of even one injection can lead to death of the patient if help does not arrive in time. Everything is so serious for one reason - insulin injections compensate for the hormone in the body, which, due to pathology, ceases to produce the pancreas in the required amount.
If the body is in the early stages of the disease, the patient usually needs a treatment regimen with short or ultra-short insulin. In this case, injections are given subcutaneously after meals.
Diabetes or sugar disease is a damage to the body associated with a malfunction of the endocrine system. The first type ...
If the disease has reached the next stage of development, types of long-acting insulin are prescribed to the patient, the intake regimen of which is strictly tied to time and requires the strictest regimen.
It is important to note that all names of extended-acting insulins are prescribed only by a doctor and only in the complete absence of independent production of the hormone by the human pancreas, with rapid death of beta cells.
Type 2 diabetes is also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes. This is a serious disease characterized by ...
When prescribing the drug, the doctor must study the patient’s notes, reflecting the level of glucose in the blood over the past three weeks, and preferably one to two months.
When prolonged insulin is used
For normal life, long insulin is prescribed as basal, for patients with a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, extended-acting insulin is prescribed as monotherapy.
Basal insulin is an insulin produced in the body constantly 24 hours a day, regardless of the time and frequency of food intake. However, in patients with type II diabetes, the pancreas is not able to produce the hormone in minimal doses. Long-acting insulin injections are given 1 time in the morning, before meals, sometimes two. The medication begins to act in full after three hours and remains valid for up to 24 hours.
In the treatment of type 1 diabetes, basal insulin is necessarily supplemented with short or ultrashort injections.
Long-acting insulin, the names of which are given below, are necessary in the following cases:
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- stabilization of blood glucose in the morning before meals,
- retention of the necessary level of the hormone at night,
- reduce the effects of such a thing as "morning dawn",
- prevention of ketoocytosis and preservation of beta cells in type 1 diabetes,
- stabilization of the state of the body and its retention from the further development of the disease in type 2 diabetes.
The size of the dose of long insulin is determined only by the doctor, after a detailed examination of the patient and a series of experimental injections. To prevent hypoglycemia in the initial doses, the concentration of the hormone is overestimated. Then the concentration gradually decreases to normalize the level of glucose in the blood.
Prolonged insulin is important to use correctly. It does not help, as an emergency aid, stabilize blood sugar after eating, such as short or ultra-short insulin. Its action is not so fast. Prolonged insulin injections require strict adherence to the regimen and schedule. Deviations from the appointed time will most likely provoke serious consequences for the patient’s health, since the blood glucose indicator will not be stable.
Advantages and disadvantages
Using long-acting insulins, the patient provides his body with the most accurate imitation of the human hormone. Conventionally, long-acting insulin, the names of which will be discussed below, is divided into two groups: the duration of action is 15 hours and the duration of action is up to 30 hours.
Having reached the point of the highest concentration at a slow pace, prolonged-acting insulin begins the same gradual decrease without causing acute reactions and jumps in the patient's blood. And here the most important thing is not to miss the moment when the effect of the injection becomes zero and enter the next dose of the drug. Long insulin has its advantages and disadvantages like any other drug.
- simple introduction
- the treatment regimen is quite simple and understandable to both the patient and his relatives,
- low indicator of the combination of skills and the necessary information for the treatment,
- lack of need for constant monitoring of blood glucose levels,
- independent control over the course of the disease and ongoing therapy is possible.
- stable risk of hypoglycemia,
- stable hyperinsulinemia, which increases the risk of developing hypertension,
- strict diet and injection,
- weight gain
The absence of activity peaks in long-acting insulin is due to the presence of the hormone glargine in its composition, which penetrates the blood evenly enough. Glargine's Ph balance is acidic and this factor excludes its interaction with neutral Ph balance preparations, i.e. short and ultrashort insulin.
The most famous names of long-acting insulins are given in the table with a detailed description:
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|Humulin NPH, Protafan, Insuman, Bazal||Protamine significantly prolongs the effect of the drug. The action lasts up to 12 hours, however, depends on the dose. Sometimes this type of insulin works up to 16 hours||Medium insulin called NPH. They are an analogue of human hormone with the addition of protamine|
|Levemir, Tujeo, Lantus||Preparations of a new generation with the progressive action of the hormone. With proper use, stabilize the level of glucose in the blood during the day. Differ in mild penetration into the blood and a mild decrease in concentration||Long insulins. These drugs have passed all laboratory tests, have been thoroughly studied and are widely used in the appointment of a type 1 and type 2 diabetes treatment regimen.|
|Tresiba||It features a long stable action without peaks for 42 hours. In the treatment of type 2 diabetes, it has a great superiority over other drugs. However, in the treatment of type 1 diabetes, its advantage is less noticeable. The drug perfectly stabilizes the level of glucose in the blood in the morning, but increases the likelihood of developing hypoglycemia in the afternoon.||Extra long insulin. There is only one in this group. This is the latest analogue of human insulin, but also the most expensive.|
Despite a wide selection of long insulins, the names of which are given above in the table, the most popular so far are Lantus and Levemir. Let's see why.
The drug that patients use more often than others. It does not need to be shaken before injection, the composition of the suspension is transparent and without precipitation. Available in the form of a pen, syringe, cartridge, and five-cartridge systems. The presence of such a choice allows the patient to choose which option is acceptable for him.
This drug stabilizes blood glucose levels for 24 hours. Available in the form of a disposable multi-dose syringe pen with five mounted cartridges for subcutaneous administration.
It is important for patients to know that both long-acting insulins cannot be frozen. Shelf life is 30 months and the medicine is dispensed only by prescription.
The price depends on the name of long-acting insulin significantly. This should also be considered when communicating with a doctor and receiving a treatment regimen. But, often, and this is understandable, patients are guided not by prices, but by individual tolerance of drugs.
Diabetes always leads to fatal complications. Excessive blood sugar is extremely dangerous.
Aronova S.M. gave explanations about the treatment of diabetes. Read completely
Among the fast-acting human insulins, the preparations Homorap and Insumad Rapid are worth highlighting. There is practically no difference between them. The only difference is in the amount of residue of amino acids present in its composition.
The "fast" insulin of animal origin also includes the medicines "Insulrap SPP", "Iletin II Regular" and others. They are most often prescribed for type II diabetes. Means from this category contain proteins with a different structure, and therefore are not suitable for all patients. For example, “fast” animal-derived insulins cannot be given to people whose body is not capable of processing animal lipids.
Reception, dosage, storage of "short" insulin
Take the drug immediately before meals. In this case, it is food that accelerates the absorption of insulin, the effect occurs almost immediately.
"Quick" insulins can be taken orally, after diluting them to a liquid state.
If subcutaneous administration of the drug is practiced, then the injection must be done about 30 minutes before the planned meal.
The dosage for each person with diabetes is selected individually. For adults, the dose will be 8-24 units per day, and for children - no more than 8 units.
Store drugs at a temperature of + 2- + 8 degrees. For this, a shelf in the refrigerator door is suitable.
Diabetics are forced to take medications that support normal blood sugar levels. But every type of diabetes needs a certain type of insulin. So a drug with an average duration is used when glucose needs a gradual breakdown. It can also be used if at the moment there is no possibility of using "short" insulin.
It is the timely introduced drug that allows diabetics to enjoy life without experiencing discomfort caused by high blood sugar. What is the difference between this type of insulin preparations from others and what types of long-acting insulin exist - let's talk about this.
The main difference between insulin in this case is that the effect of the drug sometimes lasts more than 24 hours.
In addition, all types of extended-acting insulin contain chemical catalysts that ensure the long-term functioning of the drug. They also delay the absorption of sugars. The therapeutic effect occurs after about 4-6 hours, and the duration of action can be up to 36 hours.
Long acting insulins: what types exist
The most commonly prescribed medications are Determit and Glargin. Their main difference is a uniform decrease in blood sugar.
Long-acting insulins are also Ultratard, Ultralente-yletin-1, Huminsulin, Ultralong, etc.
Medicines are prescribed by the attending physician, which further helps to avoid various troubles in the form of side effects.
Use and storage of the drug
This type of insulin can be administered exclusively by injection. Only after entering the body in this way, it begins to work. An injection is placed in the forearm, buttock or thigh.
Before use, the vial must be shaken so that the mixture inside it acquires a uniform consistency. After that, it is ready for use.
Store the drug under the same conditions as short-acting insulins. Such a temperature regime prevents the formation of flakes and granulation of the mixture, as well as the oxidation of the drug.
They inject insulin once, sometimes twice during the day.
The origin of insulin
Differences in insulin - not only in time of action, but also in origin. Animal preparations and insulins that are identical to human are isolated.
To obtain drugs from the first category, the pancreas of pigs, as well as cattle, is used. The biological structure of insulin derived from pig organs is most suitable for humans. The difference in this case is completely insignificant - just one amino acid.
But the best drugs are, of course, human insulins, which are used most often. There are two ways to produce a product:
- The first way is to replace one inappropriate amino acid. In this case, semi-synthetic insulin is obtained.
- In the second method of production of the drug involved Escherichia coli, capable of synthesizing protein. This will already be a biosynthetic agent.
Preparations similar to human insulin have several advantages:
- to obtain the desired therapeutic effect requires the introduction of smaller doses,
- the development of lipodystrophy is relatively rare,
- allergy to drugs is practically not observed.
Degree of purification
Depending on the degree of purification, the preparations are divided into:
Traditional insulins are among the very first insulin preparations. They contained a huge number of protein impurities, which became the cause of frequent allergic reactions. Currently, the release of such drugs is significantly reduced.
Monopik insulin products have a very small amount of impurities (within acceptable limits). But monocomponent insulins are almost perfectly pure, since the volume of unnecessary impurities is even less than the lower limit.
The main differences between "short" and "long" insulin
|Long insulin||Short insulin|
|Place of introduction||An injection is placed in the thigh, because in this case the drug is absorbed very slowly||An injection is placed in the skin of the abdomen, since in this case insulin begins to work almost immediately|
|Time reference||It is introduced at the same time (morning and evening). At the same time as the morning dose, an injection of "short" insulin is given||Taking the drug 20 to 30 minutes before eating|
|Food binding||"Long" insulin is not associated with food intake||After administration of short insulin, food must be taken without fail. If this is not done, then there is a chance of developing hypoglycemia|
As you can see, the types of insulin (the table clearly shows this) differ in basic indicators. And these features must be considered.
We examined all available types of insulin and their effect on the human body. We hope you find the information helpful. Be healthy!
Differences in insulin in origin
According to this principle, the following types of insulin are distinguished:
- cattle insulin - obtained from the pancreas of animals. This insulin is most different from human. Allergic reactions often occur to it.
- pork - obtained from the pancreas of pigs. It differs from the human in just one amino acid. Swine insulin also often causes allergies.
- human - or rather, analogues of human insulin and genetically engineered insulin. These insulins are obtained in two ways: in the first method, human insulin is synthesized by E. coli, and in the second method, human insulin is obtained from porcine insulin by replacing one amino acid.
Cattle insulins include: Insulrap GLP, Ultralente, Ultlente MS.
Pork insulins include: Monodar K (15.30.50), Monodar ultralong, Monodar Long, Monosuinsulin, Insulrap SPP, etc.
Human insulins include: Actrapid, Novorapid, Lantus, Humulin, Humalog, Novomiks, Protafan and many others.
The best analogues are human insulin and genetically engineered insulin, they have better cleaning, do not have such side effects as insulin of animal origin, do not cause allergic reactions as often as animal insulins, since they do not contain foreign protein, unlike animal insulin .
Differences in insulin duration of action
According to the principle and duration of action, ultrashort insulins are distinguished, short, medium duration, prolonged action.
Ultrashort insulins begin to act immediately after administration, reach a peak after 1-1.5, and last 3-4 hours.
These insulins can be administered immediately before and after meals. With the introduction of ultrashort insulin before meals, it is not necessary to maintain a pause between injection and food.
Ultrashort insulins do not require additional snacks at the peak of action, which is more convenient than short ones.
Ultrashort insulins include Apidra, Novo-Rapid, Humalog.
Short insulins begin their action after 20-30 minutes, the peak of action occurs after 2-3 hours, the duration of action is about 5-6 hours.
Short insulins are administered before meals, it is usually necessary to maintain a pause between the injection and the start of the meal in 10-15 minutes.
When using short insulins, it is necessary to have a snack 2-3 hours after the injection, the snack time should coincide with the peak time of insulin action.
Short insulins include Actrapid, Himulin Regular, Monodar (K50, K30, K15), Insuman Rapid, Humodar, etc.
- Medium Duration Insulins
This group combines insulins, which have a fairly long duration of action, about 12-16 hours.
Typically, in type 1 diabetes, these insulins are used as basal or background. It takes two (sometimes three) injections per day, usually in the morning and evening with an interval of 12 hours.
These insulins begin to work after 1-3 hours, reach their peak after 4-8 (on average) hours and last about 12-16 hours.
Medium-duration insulins include such insulins as Protafan, Humulin NPH, Humodar br, Insuman Bazal, Novomiks.
- Long-acting insulins
These insulins act as background or basal insulin. One (sometimes two) injection per day is required.
Long-acting insulins are used for type 2 diabetes insulin therapy.
Their dosage is of an accumulative nature, that is, when the dose of administration is changed, the effect will be fully visible in 2-3 days.
Prolonged insulins begin to work 4-6 hours after administration, peak activity in 10-14 hours, their effect lasts 20-24 hours.
Among extended-acting insulins there are “peakless” insulins, that is, they do not give a pronounced peak, respectively, they act more gently and to a greater extent imitate the action of endogenous insulin in a healthy person.
Long-acting insulins include Lantus, Monodar Long and Monodar Ultralong, Ultlente, Ultralong, Humulin L, etc.
Peakless insulins include Levemir, Lantus.
Type of insulin
Duration of action
Types of hormones and their differences
Diabetes mellitus forces the use of different types of synthesized insulin. Each reproducible hormone has individual characteristics. Thanks to these features, it is possible to select a drug for the individual characteristics of a particular human body, but such substances are usually not interchangeable.
Each drug differs from analogues in the time of its effect on the body and peaks of activity. Only a competent specialist (doctor) can choose the best option for maintenance therapy for the patient, based on the severity of the disease.
The main types of hormone:
- Insulin, which was obtained from the pancreas of dairy cattle (cows, bulls). It contains 3 additional amino acids that are not in the human hormone, so this drug can cause some allergic reactions.
- Medications based on the gland of pigs. Their biochemical composition is closest to human hormone, with the exception of differences in only one amino acid from the protein chain.
- The rarest type of hormone is the whale, it has maximum differences in composition compared with human insulin, so it is used in the rarest cases.
- The most suitable type of hormone based on human. This analogue is made from real Escherichia coli (real insulin human cells) or by genetic engineering modification of the porcine hormone (replacing the “unsuitable” amino acid).
The exposure time of each type of drug is individual, so the right choice of synthesized hormone is especially important for each patient.
According to the duration of the drug, they are divided into:
- Fastest action (ultra short). The medicine begins to act after 15-30 minutes and reaches its maximum effect in 2-3 hours, it lasts up to 6 hours. Insulin is used before meals, somewhere in 30 minutes, seizing it with a small amount of light food.
This category of hormones includes ultrashort drugs and short-acting insulins.
Ultrashort hormones have the fastest effect and immediately reduce sugar. They are taken shortly before meals.
The main brands of this type of drugs include:
- Humalogue. It is used for: type 1 diabetes mellitus, individual intolerance to similar drugs, acute insulin resistance and type 2 disease (in cases where other drugs do not have the desired effect).
- NovoRapid. Available in a container with a volume of 3 ml, which corresponds to the content of 300 units of the hormone. May be used by pregnant women.
- Apidra. It is used for medicinal purposes, both by adults and children over 6 years old, using a pump-based system or subcutaneous route of administration.
Short insulins begin their action in half an hour and are active up to 6 hours. They are used before starting a meal in 20 minutes. They can be used in tandem with long-acting drugs.
The main representatives are:
- Actrapid NM. Insulin obtained through the genetic engineering industry. It is ingested by subcutaneous injection or via a vein. It is issued strictly according to the prescription of the attending physician.
- Humodar R. The drug is on a semi-synthetic basis.
- Humulin Regular. It is used in the initial stages of identifying the disease, it is allowed to use by pregnant women.
- Monodar. Used for diabetes mellitus 1 and 2 stages.
All types of short-acting hormone-supporting drugs are used before starting a meal, as the digestion process helps to speed up the process of absorption of the drug as quickly as possible. Hormones of ultrafast and rapid action are allowed to be taken orally, after bringing them to a liquid state.
In the case of subcutaneous administration of the drug, such a procedure must be performed no earlier than half an hour before the meal. Doses of the drug for each patient are strictly individual and are determined solely by the attending physician. Dosages for adults can range from 8 to 23 units per day, and for children - no more than 9 units.
The synthesized hormones retain their properties at temperatures from 2 to 8 degrees, so they are usually stored in the refrigerator.
This type of drug has a prolonged effect.
There are 2 types of drugs:
- based on human cells (their synthesis), such as: Protafan, Homolong, etc.,
- on an animal basis, for example: Berlsulin, Iletin 2 and others.
Medium insulins exert their effect within 15 minutes after ingestion, but the effect of complete cleavage is achieved after a significant period of time.
This group of drugs contains substances on a different active basis, for example, zinc and isophan.
Long acting products
Drugs belonging to this category act on the patient's body for a day or more. The entire range of long-acting drugs are made on the basis of chemical catalysts, which determine such long exposure indicators.
“Long” insulins help delay the absorption of sugar in the blood and can exert their active effect for up to 30 hours in a row.
The most popular brands include:
- the most popular: Determid, Glargin (evenly lower sugar levels),
- no less common brands: Ultralente-Iletin-1, Ultralgon, Ultratard.
In order to completely eliminate the appearance of unwanted side effects, you should contact a specialist who will help determine the dosage of the drug based on the analysis parameters.
"Long" insulins are administered exclusively by injection.
The storage mode for all types of drugs in this direction is identical. Ampoules with the drug can also be stored in the refrigerator. Only at low temperatures are medicines not prone to the formation of granules or flakes.
Classification of degrees of purification
The hormonal active substance is synthesized for various needs. The final product is obtained using various degrees of purification.
Table of degrees of purification of the hormone:
|The name of the drug||Distinctive features and method of cleaning|
|Traditional||Synthesized by acidic ethanol, followed by filtration. Next, the drug is subjected to salting out and crystallization. The substance as a result has many side impurities in its composition.|
|Monopic||Initially, procedures similar to the above drug are carried out, and then the resulting preparation is filtered through a special gel. The degree of purification is at an average level.|
|Monocomponent||They are subjected to the deepest purification by molecular sieving and chromatography using ion exchange. The resulting substance is the most purified from impurities.|
Video lecture on the types and classification of the hormone:
The main differences between short and long insulin
Distinctive features of short-acting insulin:
- a medication is taken half an hour before a meal,
- for a quicker onset of action, is injected into the subcutaneous region on the abdomen,
- an injection of the drug must be accompanied by a further meal in order to exclude the likelihood of developing a disease such as hypoglycemia.
Distinctive features of the long-acting hormone:
- this type of drug is administered at a certain time (constantly at the same hours in the morning or in the evening). The morning injection should be done in tandem with an injection of fast insulin,
- for delayed absorption of the drug into the blood, an injection is made in the thigh area of the leg,
- this type of hormone does not depend on the meal schedule.
From the above characteristics of each type of medicine, it can be concluded that the choice of the appropriate insulin, its dosage and the way it enters the body depends on many factors.
To determine a safe course of treatment, you should contact your doctor.