They are bodies that perform the function of blood coagulation. With their deficiency, hemostasis slows down, which significantly increases the risk of bleeding and large blood loss even against minor vascular damage. If an elevated platelet level is noted, then the blood coagulates much more than necessary, which is fraught with the development of vascular catastrophes. This situation occurs in the presence of inflammatory processes in the body.
Perform the role of health guards. The main function of these bodies is to identify and eliminate foreign infectious agents, bacteria and viruses. If the analysis showed leukocytosis, that is, an increase in white uniform elements, then the presence of inflammatory processes is highly likely. Also, leukemoid reactions or leukemia cannot be ruled out. A decrease in the level of leukocytes indicates a decrease in the body's resistance, which is negatively reflected in its general health. Low levels of white blood cells are also noted after exposure or chemotherapy.
Can a general blood test determine diabetes
This diagnostic test is not diabetic; it does not show the pancreas. Due to this test, it is impossible to determine or suspect diabetes mellitus, for this you need to perform specific measures - to determine blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin, to conduct a glucose tolerance test.
To treat a disease such as diabetes, should only be under the close supervision of a doctor. Appointment of dietary supplements for yourself from online stores can delay the trip to the endocrinologist.
What tests should be taken?
With diabetes, it is recommended to regularly take the following tests:
- blood glucose
- glycated hemoglobin,
- general blood test (KLA),
- blood chemistry,
- urinalysis (OAM)
- determination of microalbumin in urine.
In parallel with this, it is necessary to periodically undergo a complete diagnosis, which includes:
- kidney ultrasound
- ophthalmic examination,
- dopplerography of veins and arteries of the lower extremities.
These studies help to identify not only latent diabetes mellitus, but also the development of its characteristic complications, for example, varicose veins, decreased frequency of vision, renal failure, etc.
This blood test for diabetes is very important. Thanks to him, you can track the level of glucose in the blood and the pancreas. This analysis is carried out in 2 stages. The first is on an empty stomach. It allows you to identify the development of a syndrome such as “morning dawn”, which is characterized by a sharp increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood in the region of 4-7 hours in the morning.
But in order to get more reliable results, the second stage of the analysis is carried out - the blood is donated again after 2 hours. The indicators of this study allow us to control the absorption of food and glucose breakdown by the body.
Blood tests for diabetics should be done every day. To do this, you do not need to run to the clinic every morning. It is enough just to purchase a special glucometer, which will allow you to carry out these tests without leaving your home.
Short name - HbA1c. This analysis is carried out in laboratory conditions and is given 2 times a year, provided that the patient does not receive insulin, and 4 times a year when undergoing treatment with insulin injections.
Venous blood is taken as the biological material for this study. The results that he shows, diabetics must be recorded in their diary.
For type 1 or type 2 diabetes, this test is recommended every 3 weeks. Its correct decoding allows you to track the effectiveness of the treatment and the development of complications against diabetes. An analysis is carried out in the laboratory and blood is taken from an empty stomach vein for research.
When decoding this analysis, it is possible to identify disorders in the body that diabetes mellitus entailed. So, for example, if a patient has an elevated level of fructosamine in the blood serum, this may indicate that the diabetic has problems with the kidneys or hyperactivity of the thyroid gland. If this indicator is below normal, then this already indicates insufficient thyroid function and a disturbed hormonal background, as well as the development of diabetic nephropathy.
A general blood test allows you to investigate the quantitative indicators of the components of the blood, so that you can identify various pathological processes that are currently occurring in the body. For research, blood is taken from the finger. In type 1 or type 2 diabetes, the collection of biological material is carried out on an empty stomach or immediately after eating.
Using the UAC, you can monitor the following indicators:
- Hemoglobin. When this indicator is below normal, this may indicate the development of iron deficiency anemia, the opening of internal bleeding and a general violation of the hematopoiesis process. A significant excess of hemoglobin in diabetes indicates a lack of fluid in the body and its dehydration.
- Platelets. These are red bodies that perform one important function - they are responsible for the level of blood coagulation. If their concentration decreases, the blood begins to clot poorly, which increases the risk of bleeding, even with minor injury. If the level of platelets exceeds the normal range, then this already speaks of increased blood coagulability and may indicate the development of inflammatory processes in the body. Sometimes an increase in this indicator is a sign of tuberculosis.
- White blood cells. They are the guardians of health. Their main function is the detection and elimination of foreign microorganisms. If, according to the results of the analysis, their excess is observed, then this indicates the development of inflammatory or infectious processes in the body, and may also signal the development of leukemia. A reduced level of white blood cells, as a rule, is observed after radiation exposure and indicates a decrease in the body's defenses, due to which a person becomes vulnerable to various infections.
- Hematocrit. Many people often confuse this indicator with the level of red blood cells, but in fact it shows the ratio of plasma and red bodies in the blood. If the hematocrit level rises, then this indicates the development of erythrocytosis, if it decreases, anemia or hyperhydration.
KLA for diabetes is recommended to take at least 1 time per year. In case complications are observed against the background of this disease, this analysis is submitted much more often - 1-2 times in 4-6 months.
Biochemical diagnostics even reveal the hidden processes occurring in the body. For the study, venous blood is taken on an empty stomach.
A biochemical blood test allows you to track the following indicators:
- Glucose level. When examining venous blood, blood sugar should not exceed 6.1 mmol / L. If this indicator exceeds these values, then we can talk about impaired glucose tolerance.
- Glycated hemoglobin. The level of this indicator can be found out not only by passing HbA1c, but also using this analysis. Biochemical indicators allow you to determine the future treatment tactics. If the level of glycated hemoglobin exceeds 8%, then the correction of the treatment is carried out. For people suffering from diabetes, the level of glycated hemoglobin below 7.0% is considered the norm.
- Cholesterol. Its concentration in the blood allows you to determine the state of fat metabolism in the body. Elevated cholesterol increases the risk of thrombophlebitis or thrombosis.
- Triglycides. An increase in this indicator is most often observed with the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, as well as with obesity and concomitant type 2 diabetes.
- Lipoproteins. In type 1 diabetes, these rates often remain normal. Only slight deviations from the norm can be observed, which is not hazardous to health. But with type 2 diabetes, the following picture is observed - low density lipoproteins are increased, and high density lipoproteins are underestimated. In this case, urgent correction of treatment is required. Otherwise, serious health problems may occur.
- Insulin Its level allows you to monitor the amount of your own hormone in the blood. In type 1 diabetes, this indicator is always below normal, and in type 2 diabetes, it remains within the normal range or slightly exceeds it.
- C peptide. A very important indicator that allows you to evaluate the functionality of the pancreas. In DM 1, this indicator is also at the lower limits of the norm or equal to zero. With type 2 diabetes, the level of C-peptides in the blood, as a rule, is normal.
- Pancreatic peptide. With diabetes, it is often underestimated. Its main functions are controlling the production of juice by the pancreas to break down food.
To get a more accurate assessment of the health status of a diabetic, you need to take a blood and urine test at the same time. OAM surrenders 1 time in 6 months and how OAK allows you to identify various hidden processes in the body.
This analysis allows you to evaluate:
- physical properties of urine, its acidity, level of transparency, the presence of sediment, etc.,
- chemical properties of urine
- specific gravity of urine, due to which it is possible to determine the condition of the kidneys,
- levels of protein, glucose and ketones.
Determination of microalbumin in urine
This analysis allows to identify pathological processes in the kidneys at an early development. It seems like this: in the morning a person empties the bladder, as usual, and the 3 subsequent portions of urine are collected in a special container.
If the functionality of the kidneys is normal, microalbumin is not detected at all in the urine. If there are already any renal impairment, its level rises significantly. And if it is in the range of 3–300 mg / day, then this indicates serious violations in the body and the need for urgent treatment.
It must be understood that diabetes is a disease that can disable the whole organism and monitor its course is very important. Therefore, do not neglect the delivery of laboratory tests. This is the only way to control this disease.