Blood donation to determine the sugar content in it is one of the most frequent studies and is mandatory along with other tests to assess the state of health in general. It is of particular importance if the patient has hypertension or is overweight / obese or has relatives with prediabetes or diabetes.
What will the blood tell
Speaking about blood sugar, we mean glucose, which is present in the blood in a dissolved state, circulating throughout the body. The organs that supply glucose to the blood - the liver and intestines, also the body receives it from certain products: sweets, honey, berries and fruits, pumpkins, carrots, beets and others. Glucose charges us with the energy obtained from the processing of carbohydrates. It is her who “feeds” the brain, red blood cells and muscle tissue. Assimilation occurs with the participation of insulin - a special hormone produced by the pancreas.
Blood sugar level is the amount of glucose present in it. There is minimal sugar on an empty stomach, but when food begins to enter the body, its amount increases, returning to normal some time later. Although there may be a failure in the absorption of glucose, and then its amount either suddenly "bounces" upwards or rapidly "drops". Such phenomena are called hyper- or hypoglycemia, In especially severe cases, they can provoke the victim falling into a coma, sometimes ending in death.
The amount of sugar in the blood also depends on how active a person is physically, and besides what psychological state he is in!
First of all, the patient undergoing examination passes a simple blood test. Depending on the result, the doctor may prescribe other tests in addition to determine what caused the deviation from the norm (if any).
- General blood analysis - starting, appointed more often than other methods. It is used in preventive examinations or if the patient has signs of an increase / decrease in sugar. Blood is taken from a finger or vein (here the indicators will be higher).
- Measurement of fructosamine concentration - allows you to identify diabetes and assess the correctness of therapy prescribed to the patient after a few weeks. Only this method makes it possible to accurately determine the glucose content if the patient has hemolytic anemia or had a loss of blood. Blood is taken from a vein. With diseases, hypoproteinemia or proteinuria is uninformative!
- Blood for glycated hemoglobin - allows you to check the glucose content for up to several months. The hemoglobin component that is associated with blood sugar is glycated and is expressed as a percentage: the higher the amount of glucose, the higher the percentage of glycated hemoglobin. The result of the examination is not affected by food intake and daily time, as well as physical and psycho-emotional stress. This test is very important for continuous monitoring of the health of patients diagnosed with diabetes. Blood is taken from a vein. Contraindicated in children under 6 months of age and pregnant women!
- Glucose tolerance test - carried out in order to check how glucose intake affects the body. Such a diagnosis is prescribed to make sure, or vice versa, to refute the presence of diabetes if the initial examination determined high sugar. During it, sugar is measured on an empty stomach, then the patient needs to drink glucose diluted with water. After that, sugar is measured after 1 hour, and then 2 hours. If there are no problems, sugar rises first, and then begins to return to normal. But with diabetes, a return to the initial levels is no longer possible if the patient has consumed glucose. Blood is taken from a vein. Contraindicated if the sugar content on an empty stomach exceeds 11.1 mmol / L, children under 14 years of age, patients after myocardial infarction or surgery, women who have recently given birth.
- Glucose tolerance test determining C-peptide - performed to count the cells involved in the production of insulin (beta cells) and the subsequent determination of the form of diabetes, as well as to verify the effectiveness of treatment for diabetics. Blood is taken from a vein.
- Diagnosing lactic acid (lactate) levels - determines the oxygen saturation of tissues. It is used to detect the following conditions: oxygen starvation (hypoxia), increased acidity in the body in patients with diabetes or heart failure, hemodynamic disorders. Lactic acidosis is a serious complication, the appearance of which is promoted by an excess of lactic acid. Blood is taken from a vein.
It is very important to adhere to the necessary rules for passing examinations, otherwise the information in the analyzes may turn out to be erroneous! All tests should be done after 8-12 hours of fasting, except glycated hemoglobinwhich is performed 4 hours after eating. You can drink water. Results may worsen:
- Alcoholic drinks - Yesterday's use of at least a minimal amount is enough to spoil the result!
- Sport - Intensive training can increase sugar!
- Nervous strain - for the correct result, it is important to remain calm!
- Food - Do not abuse sweets and other fast carbohydrates!
- Colds - require a two-week recovery period!
If the patient observes a diet, you need to abandon it for several days, and also temporarily exclude the use of medications (this also applies to glucocorticosteroids, contraceptives taken orally) and vitamin C, observe the drinking regimen.
Tests related to glucose tolerance require special attention: the medical workers who perform them must have sufficient experience, since patients use glucose for the examination and the amount that is inappropriate for their condition can not only distort the results, but also provoke a sudden deterioration in well-being!